Mars: Pele, Goddess of Drive, Passion and Courage (Hawaii)

The planet Mars is the first of the outer planets, which means that unlike Freyja-Mercury and Inanna-Venus who from our vantage point never stray far from the Sun and either appear as morning or evening stars, Mars stays with us throughout the year. The so-called “red planet” glows bright orange in the night sky and can be easily spotted with the naked eye.

Mars energy is similar to that of the Sun: It is free, unbound and available for action. This planet is the planet of “doing”. Her main themes are: action, passion, drive and courage.

Traditional astrology considers Mars energies to be “typically” male and, yes, it is certainly true that after a few thousand years of patriarchy men are able to access those qualities much more easily and readily from within themselves than many of today’s women can. For a very very long time our society thought our foremothers to be everything BUT active and driven. Unfortunately, even in today’s world where girls and boys are brought up alongside each other and schools and work places offer equal opportunities for both sexes (although still not always!), those memes that tell us that little boys are active, wild and brave, while little girls are cute and good and gentle continue to stay with us.

Memes are cultural norms that are passed on within a society just as genes are passed on from parents to children. Memes are the reason why we dress little girls in pink and little boys in blue. They’re what tell us that little girls are made of “sugar and spice and everything nice” while little boys are made of “snips and snails and puppy dog tails.” They’re also what tell us that girls are quiet and cutesy, love flowery dresses and want to grow up to be princesses. Boys on the other hand are wild and rough, they like to climb trees, do sports and play-fight. None of this is true, but nonetheless we teach our children to act like that. For instance, most fairy tales and even adult stories are based around a male hero who saves the damsel in distress. When was the last time you heard a traditional children’s story where the female lead was heroic all by herself and saved the prince and the queendom (not kingdom for a change!)? Memes and cultural norms are very slow to change, but they do eventually. Today’s European-American society takes it for granted that women can vote and conduct business in their own names. This was unheard of only 100 years ago! And so will the old Grimm’s fairy tales with many of the overtones of the time (the Grimm brothers lived in Germany just after hundreds of years of witch burnings had finally come to an end!) be superseded by new tales that are not as sexist and puritan as the original ones while retaining all the valuable Goddess imagery.

And so, in order to make my own little contribution towards our brighter egalitarian non-sexist equal-opportunities future for all, I declare that action and passion and drive and courage are situated right there within EVERYONE’S heart and that includes all women. (And I refuse to call this “animus”, our little man inside!) We only have to remember heroines from days gone by like Celtic Boudicca and Eleanor of Aquitaine to KNOW what we’re capable of. These so-called “male” attributes are very much part of the female psyche. We just have to remember that truth and KNOW that we’re courageous and strong and capable of anything and everything we put our minds to.

For that reason I have assigned Pele, the Hawaiian Fire and Volcano Goddess to replace Mars, the Roman God of War, as the new archetype for the fiery planet of action. I initially considered Boudicca to be the Goddess of Drive and Passion, but then decided that I didn’t want to use a war-faring image to represent a trait that is positive and good and so very vital. It’s those very traits that allowed our Cretan and Indus Valley foremothers to create beautiful, peaceful societies with scientific feats of indoor plumbing for all! It’s what’s driven every creative, artistic, scientific advancement in the world. It’s a positive energy of the will that should never ever be misused in the pursuit of war and violence!

The other heroine I considered was Pohaha, the young Hopi-Tewa warrior maiden from the Cottonwood Clan, who successfully led the defence attack against raiders and who lifted her skirts to declare to all that it was a woman who was defeating them. Again, I decided against this particular story, as like Boudicca it associates the fiery qualities of Mars with war and fighting.

For more info on Pele, please check out my post entitled “Pele – The Hawaiian Volcano and Fire Goddess“.

Pele‘s traits and what She is about

Pele is hot and fiery. She is the planet of doing as opposed to thinking about it. Pele‘s character is actually very similar to that of young children: she is not afraid to try something new. Failure or success are not something Pele worries about, rather it’s the experience of doing something that’s important. Pele is a natural risk-taker.

She is passionate and driven, but also selfish. Pele is all about wants and desires, She’s the planet of the will.

Pele‘s energies are focused on ourselves, on what’s important to us, the individual. In effect Pele is about getting our own way. She’s also about protecting what we consider to be ours. [1]

Her main areas of focus are:


– doing not thinking
– physical energy
– vitality
– personal power
– strength (body and mind)
– go-getting


– will
– motivation
– competitiveness
– assertiveness
– ambition
– enthusiasm

Pioneering (leading to progress)

– creativeness
– instigation
– initiation
– taking a chance
– risk taking


– daring
– courage
– endurance
– taking something on the chin
– fiery
– “having guts”

Me, myself and I

– selfish
– “I want”
– child-like
– young spirited
– positive
– this is “mine”
– defending what is “mine”


– desire
– love for life
– survival
– instincts
– wildness
– excitement
– raw animal sexuality

Pele‘s metal is iron.

Within the body Pele governs the sexual organs, the muscles and the oxygen-rich arterial blood.

Pele in a Horoscope

Pele is a personal planet, which means that it’s possible to affect or alter Her traits through will power.

Pele is our active expression of our life force, of our sexual energies.

Within a horoscope, the sign that Pele was in at the time of birth tell us what exactly gets us going, what makes us want to assert ourselves. It tell us how we go about doing things and what actions we take.

Pele describes what we want and how we go about getting it. She tells us what we consider to be “ours” and how we go about defending that.

Pele rules Aries, the sign of the Ram, the fiery pioneer of the zodiac, as well as Scorpio, the passionate and possessive Water sign. Pele exalts in Capricorn, the practical “doing stuff” Earth sign, which means that Her energies feel at home and comfortable here.


[1] Pele‘s traits are actually part of those once attributed to the original Venus Goddesses. To find out more, please check out my post entitled “The Original Venus – Goddess of Heaven, Earth and the Underworld“.

Pele – The Hawaiian Volcano and Fire Goddess

Pele is the Goddess of Fire and Volcanoes of the Hawaiian people. She is “She Who Shapes the Sacred Land”.

Pele is a Destructress-Creatrix. She embodies Divine Creative Power that here manifests as the Volcano Kilauea on the Big Island of Hawaii. Pele destroys in order to clear the way for new creation. It is Pele who has shaped the island to what it is and continues to do so to this day.

She is “Pele Honua Mea” – “Pele of the Sacred Earth”.

She is “Pele Ai Honua” – “Pele Who Devours the Earth”

Pele is the Divine Flame. She is the Flame of Passion, the Fire of Purpose. Pele embodies Dynamic Creation, Drive and Action. She exudes Energy. Pele is Raw Power.

Pele represents confidence and courage. She is beautiful, awe-inspiring, strong, powerful, creative, active, enthusiastic, spontaneous, alive, passionate, hot and eruptive. Pele is dangerous, yet giving and kind.

Pele is the Regeneratrix of the Dead. She receives the souls of those who have died and renews them for rebirth with Her Fires of Creation.

It is said that Pele’s origins lie on the island of Tahiti in the South Seas. There, legend says, She once lived with Her mother, the Earth Goddess Haumea, and Her many sisters and brothers. Pele, being a Fire Goddess, has always been fascinated with fires and flames, which makes Her sister Namaka, the Goddess of the Sea, very angry. Pele, as the fiery volcano, and Namaka, as the sea, have always been at odds with each other. As soon as Pele starts to burn and bursts out in a hot gush of fiery lava, Her sister Namaka with Her tidal waves quenches the fires and cools the burning flow of molten rocks.

One day Pele had had enough and decided to move away from Tahiti. She set off in a canoe cradling the egg of Her unborn sister Hi’iaka within Her armpit. Hi’iaka would one day become the Goddess of Hula. Their journey was a long one and many times Pele tried to settle on some of the islands they encountered. But every time She tried to set up Her burning volcano-home Her flames would be put out, either by Her sister Namaka who continued to pursue Her in the form of blizzards and giant waves, or the many Snow Goddesses who Pele and Hi’iaka found living on the top of island mountains.

Eventually Pele reached the area where today lie the islands of Hawaii. She caused the volcanoes under the sea to erupt and thus created the islands we know today. She Herself settled as the Volcano Kilauea on the Big Island. Here, She’s been able to live in peace with neither Her sister – the Sea – nor the Goddesses of Snow reaching Her. However, to this day you can witness Pele and Namaka fighting whenever the molten lava is cooled by the splash of the waves as it reaches the shores.

Pele loves Her home and guards it jealously. It is said that Her anger is easily roused when Her island body isn’t honoured and tourists take Her lava stones with them as souvenirs. Then She stamps Her foot so that the earth shakes. It is even said that those who dare to take Pele’s stones away with them will be cursed with bad luck. True stories tell of how tourists have returned the taken pieces to the island together with offerings and even letters of forgiveness to the Goddess. They say that their bout of bad luck breaks abruptly after that.

Pele has many forms. Besides being the volcano, the lava and the fire’s flame, Pele is also symbolised by the “Ohi’a Lehua”, a tree that grows quickly on fresh lava flows. The lehua flowers are sacred to Her, as is the Hawaiian honey creeper that drinks the nectar from the lehua blossoms.

Pele sometimes transforms Herself into a young maiden or an old crone with a white dog. Reports tell of how a young woman with long brown hair wearing a red dress is sometimes seen dancing on the rim of the Kilauea crater. Others tell of an old woman who wanders the area close to the volcano with Her little white dog. She sometimes asks for a cigarette which She lights with no more than the snap of Her fingers. Grandmother Pele or Tutu Pele, the old woman, is the most commonly reported sighting of Pele in human form. Tutu Pele is greatly beloved by the people of Hawaii, for She gives advice, passes on wisdom and warns of impending dangers. She disappears into thin air as quickly as She arrived.

The people of Hawaii consider Pele to be their “aumakua” or Guardian Spirit. Before the spreading of white man’s memes on the islands, Pele’s priestesses would wear robes with burned sleeves and hems. They carried a wand symbolising the “Paoa” staff that Pele is said to have used to create Her volcanic craters. Despite modern belief systems, Pele’s people still remember their Goddess and continue to bring Her offerings of fish, flowers and fruit.

According to Merlin Stone in “Ancient Mirrors of Womanhood” despite discouragement of Pele’s worship by Christian missionaries “…when Mauna Loa erupted in 1880, sixty-three year old Princess Ruth Keelikolani still knew the ancient chants of the priestesses of Pele.” In order to protect the town of Hilo, the princess walked up to the edge of the lava flow, reciting the ancient chants and presenting Pele’s lava stream with gifts of silk cloths and brandy (to represent the ancient sacred “awa” drink). The eruption stopped the very next day before the lava ever reached Hilo! A similar thing occurred in 1955 when the village of Kapoho was threatened. Villagers offered Pele gifts of food and tobacco and again, the lava stream stopped just before reaching the village.


Call to Pele
Ka Wahine Ahi

Aloha Pele Honua Mea!
Aloha Pele Ai Honua!
E komo mai!

I smell sulphur in the air and feel heat rising from deep in the Earth below.
The ground trembles beneath my feet.
You light the night in crimson, gold and orange,
As lava and flame flow from Your domain at the world’s core.

I ask You to hear my call and grace me with Your awesome presence.
I ask You to hear my call and bestow Your Protection on me.
I ask You to hear my call and enlighten me with Your wisdom.
I ask You to hear my call and heed my entreaty.

Ignite my passion!
Kindle my fire!
Send Your blazing energy to inspire!

– from

Venus: Inanna, Goddess of Love, Beauty and Harmony (Sumer)

The planet Venus is the second closest planet to the Sun. Like Freyja-Mercury she’s an inner planet, which means that from our vantage point on Earth the planet Venus always appears to be close to the Sun and can be seen either as a morning or evening star.

Venus is the brightest body in our solar system, as she reflects about 80% of the sun’s light. For comparison the Moon only reflects 7% of the sunlight. Venus is absolutely stunning to look at, she is bright and actually looks like a pointed star (unlike most of the stars in our skies which only look like dots of light).

In astrology the planet Venus stands for love, beauty, harmony and relationships. Like the Moon Venus exibits phases and is therefore also associated with feelings and moods. While Hera-Moon represents the Goddess as Mother and Nurturer, Venus symbolises the Goddess as Lover.

To represent astrological Venus I could have chosen any of the Venus Goddesses including Roman Venus Herself. However, I very quickly picked one of the original Venus Goddesses, Sumer’s Inanna, to represent the planet Venus. Although in modern astrology Venus isn’t attributed more than just Goddess of Love and Beauty, originally the Goddess as Venus was so much more! She was the Daughter of the Moon, the Queen of Heaven, Earth and the Underworld. Please see my post entitled “The Origial Venus – Goddess of Heaven, Earth and the Underworld” to find out more. To find out more about Inanna, the Sumerian Goddess as Venus, please check out my post “Inanna – The Sumerian Mother Goddess, Queen of Heaven and Earth“.

Inanna‘s traits and what She is about

Inanna is a planet of feelings and the soul. She is a very romantic and artistic planet that is deeply rooted in the material world. Inanna is the planet of lovers, of sensuality and eroticism. She is also the planet of pleasure, joy, peace and harmony. She is the planet of art, music and poetry. Inanna is about everything that makes our world beautiful. She brings joy and love to our lives and makes us want to share our happiness with others.

Inanna‘s main areas of focus are:


– love
– pleasure
– happiness
– joy
– intimacy
– desire
– sensuality
– eroticism


– give and take
– sharing
– nurturing


– art
– music
– poetry
– tastes
– aesthetic sensibilities


– peace
– harmony
– balance


– attractiveness
– magnetism
– charm
– charisma
– self-valuation (how attractive, loveable someone sees themselves)

Material Possessions

– wealth
– beautiful things / objects
– physical comforts
– money

Inanna‘s metal is copper.

Within the body Inanna governs the sense of touch and the erogenous zones, esp. the breasts.

Inanna in a Horoscope

Inanna is a personal planet that affects each individual uniquely. However, it’s possible to change these traits through willpower.

Within a horoscope Inanna describes our capacity to appreciate the beauty and harmony that is all around us.

Inanna tells us what gives us pleasure, what we enjoy doing and what makes us happy.

She describes how easy we are to please and what we like to do to make those around us happy. Pehaps we have a special skill or talent that we share with others.

Inanna also tells us what we find attractive in others and what others find attractive in us.

The planet Inanna rules Taurus, the Bull, as well as Libra, the sign of the scales. Both signs are deeply linked to all things beautiful: in case of Earthly Taurus Inanna’s beauty is expressed very much in the real world, while in case of airy Libra it’s reflected more in the realm of peace and harmony. Both signs are clearly linked to the Goddess as Venus, as both the Bull and the Harvest (which is represented by the Scales) are manifestations of Her son-lover.

Inanna is exalted in Pisces, the sign of the Fish, which means that She feels particularly comfortable in this sign. The fish is an ancient symbol of the Goddess that represents regeneration and renewal. In astrology watery Pisces is the empath of the zodiac, so it comes as no surprise that loving, peaceful Inanna should feel at home here.

Inanna – Sumerian Mother Goddess, Queen of Heaven and Earth

One of the longest lasting Goddesses from the ancient world is Sumer’s Inanna, who was revered in the Middle East for over 4,000 years. And even today in modern Islamic Iraq Inanna’s emblems of the reed knot and the date palm continue to have meaning to the people. [1]

Inanna’s origins are very very old and date back well into the Neolithic age. It is believed that the Goddess-revering Al ‘Ubaid culture brought Her imagery with them when they settled in the region south west of the Euphrates river as early as the 6th millennium BCE, i.e. 8,000 years ago. Her earliest temple was discovered in Uruk (Erech), Inanna’s main and longest lasting place of worship, and dates back to about 5,000 BCE.

In the early days of Her worship Inanna was still seen as the all-encompassing Mother Goddess. She was still revered as the source of the Upper and Lower Waters, as the Queen of Heaven, Earth AND the Underworld. As human consciousness – probably due to external factors – changed over the millennia, Inanna’s powers diminished. At first She was split into the Goddess of Life, represented by Inanna, and the Goddess of the Underworld, represented by Her sister Ereshkigal. Eventually She would be given a father who was said to have given Her Her powers.

According to earliest records from the 4th millennium BCE Inanna’s grandmother is Nammu, the primordial Goddess of the Sea. The Babylonians knew Her as Tiamat. Nammu created Heaven and Earth and gave birth to Ningal / Ninmah, the Goddess as the Moon. Ningal / Ninmah Herself created the first people. She also gave birth to Inanna who manifests as the planet Venus, and as Inanna is the daughter of Ninagal / Ninmah, so is Venus the daughter of the Moon.

True to Her heritage, Inanna is the Goddess of the Morning and Evening Star as well as the Moon. Her imagery include the lunar crescent horns and the 8-pointed star, the rosette, which represents the planet Venus. Her headgear consists of a horned crown enclosing a cone, which is symbolic for the sacred mountain.

Inanna is often depicted with wings and a serpent-entwined staff. This imagery tells of Her roots as an ancient Bird and Snake Goddess, the Creatrix of the Upper and Lower Waters and the Goddess of Life, Death and Renewal.

Inanna is often dressed in blue which, just as Her lapiz jewels, reflects the blue of the Upper Waters or “The Deep” as the Sumerians referred to space. In fact they saw the sky as being a manifestation of the Goddess with the clouds being Her breasts and the rain Her milk. Inanna’s necklace is described as the rainbow and Her girdle as the zodiac.

Inanna is associated with the gate to cow-byres and sheepfolds, the gate representing Her vulva and the cow-byre or sheepfold Her womb. In ancient Sumer two bundles of reeds with curved ends (“Inanna’s Knot”) were placed at the entrance of Her storehouses and later Her temple Eanna in Uruk (Erech) to symbolise the Goddess.

Inanna’s sacred animals include the lioness and the cow, the former representing Her powers – She is able to tame wild lions! – and revealing Her as Goddess of the Animals, while the latter represents Inanna’s life-giving and nurturing aspect.

In her life-giving aspect Inanna’s birds include the white lunar dove and the swallow. In Her aspect as Death-Bringer She is associated with the viper and the scorpion, but also the owl, one of Her names being “nin-ninna” or “Divine Lady Owl”

Inanna, the Great Mother Goddess of the Sumerians has many titles such as:

“Queen of Heaven and Earth”
“Priestess of Heaven”
“Light of the World”
“Morning and Evening Star”
“First Daughter of the Moon”
“Loud Thundering Storm”
“Righteous Judge”
“Forgiver of Sins”
“Holy Shepherdess”
“Hierodule of Heaven”
“Opener of the Womb”
“Framer of All Decrees”
“The Amazement of the Land”
“The Green One”
“She of the Springing Verdure”
“Queen of Stall and Fold” [2]

Although Inanna is a Goddess of Life and Death, later mythology passes Her dark moon aspect on to Her sister Ereshkigal who once having been a Corn Goddess becomes the Goddess of the Underworld. This changeover has much to do with a changing attitude towards death and the life cycle. While during the Neolithic and the early Bronze Age life was seen as cyclical with death not being the final end but rather a resting stage before rebirth, in later years as humanity distanced itself more and more from the natural world, the understanding of the Underworld changed from it being the womb of the Goddess to a place of no return. Ereshkigal is the Ruler over the Sumerian Underworld. However, some of the old cyclical beliefs remained even during the later Bronze Age, as late Sumerian mythology tells of how Ereshkigal gives birth to new life.

In Her capacity as life-giving Goddess Inanna is all about fertility and abundance. This is the aspect of Her that today we most associate with the Goddess as Venus.

As Queen of Earth Inanna is Goddess of grain, vine, date palms, cedar, the sycamore fig, the olive and the apple tree. Her temple towers known as ziggurates were large storehouses from where Her priestesses would watch over the fields, fisheries and livestock. They would accept donations from the people and share them with everyone. All incomings and outgoings would be recorded by them on clay tablets using reed styluses.

The High Priestess or Entu was seen not just as Inanna’s representative on Earth, but as the Goddess’s incarnation. Every autumn at the new year she would select a young man as her lover-consort to celebrate the Sacred Mating (Greek “Hieros Gamos” = Sacred Marriage). Through the love-making of the Entu and the man, who would become the king for the next year, the fertility of all life on Earth would be assured. Any children that were born of this union were considered to be half divine and half human, just as the hero Gilgamesh was thought to have been.

Just as Inanna is the Hierodule of Heaven, so were Her priestesses the hierodules of Earth. Hierodule is a Greek word that means “sacred work” or “servant of the holy”. Fertility and life is how the Goddess manifests Herself on Earth. [In most cases] Sexuality is the means by which fertility and thus new life comes about. In order to honour Inanna and to help keep the Earth a rich and flourishingh place, Her priestesses would re-enact the sacred act of lovemaking with Inanna’s worshippers at Her temples. The feelings of ecstasy experienced were seen as a divine state of bliss. Unfortunately, when Sumer with her long-hidden secrets was discovered not so long ago, the worldview of the archaeologists and anthropologists was clouded by Christian teachings who misunderstood the sacred role of hierodule and called Inanna’s priestesses “temple prostitutes” or “harlots”.

Inanna is the Queen of Heaven, her celestial manifestations being the Moon and the planet Venus. Like Isis in Egypt the star Sirius is sacred to Her as are the constellations Virgo and Scorpio.

Inanna is the Goddess of Death and Destruction. She is a Goddess of the Storm who represents the raw, unbridled destructive power of nature. Inanna is also known as “the Dragon” and is depicted as such with venom spewing from its mouth. In Her capacity as Destructress She is also represented by a lion-headed thunder bird known as “Imdugud”[3]

Inanna is the Goddess of Natural Law and Justice. She is the Bringer of the “me”, the Sumerian Tablets of the Law. Inanna is just and compassionate. Her gifts to humankind include civilisation, wisdom and prophesy. [4]

As said before, at the start of the Bronze Age humans still saw themselves as being completely part of nature and therefore the Goddess. However, as time went by and our consciousness and self-awareness increasingly developed we felt more and more separate from the source. While initially humans saw death not as an end but just as another step on the cycle of life, with the increasing separation from nature came the realisation that while life in general continues indefinitely, the inidividual life will not. The Ancients described this in terms of a permanent life source – Ka soul or Zoe – and the many varieties of temporary life – Ba soul or Bios – the latter of which was believed to return to the source after death. The permanent life source was experienced as the Goddess and that of the temporary life force that is born from Her and returns to Her after death was represented by Her son-lover-consort. The life and death of the son-lover contains the lunar myth of birth, growth, decay and death. It also represents the Wheel of the Year with the god or son-lover being symbolic for the vegetation that grows and dies with the seasons. By the end of the Bronze Age rebirth was no longer envisioned for the individual but reserved only for goddesses and gods.

In Sumerian mythology this story is told through the birth and death of Dumuzi, the son-lover of the Goddess Inanna. His name literally means “faithful son”, but being a vegetation god he was also referred to as “The Green One”. He is a shepherd, “Lord of Life” and “Lord of the Net”. As “Bull of Heaven” the bull is sacred to him, but so are the ram and the goat. In Sumer the date palm which was the Tree of Life was associated with Dumuzi, as were grains, especially barley. Inanna’s son-lover was identified with the harvest and all the produce that was stored inside Her temples.

Every year in the autumn when in Mesopotamia the fertile raining season started, Inanna would join with Dumuzi in the rites of the sacred mating / marriage. This would ensure the fertility of the land. At the onset of the summer in July when the Sun would dry up the land and burn the crops, Dumuzi would die and enter the Underworld.

The story of Dumuzi’s death is interlinked with Inanna’s Descent. As said before, at some point during the Bronze Age people stopped believing in the uninterrupted cycle of life and death for themselves. The Underworld no longer was the womb of the Goddess, but instead became “The Land of No Return”. However, Inanna’s priestesses were aware of this split between the Upper and Lower Waters. Just as in ancient Greece every year many Sumerians would re-enact the descent of the Goddess into the Underworld in order to reunite their own consciousness with their unconscious and regain completion. It was a shamanic journey for both the Goddess and Her initiates.

The story of Inanna’s Descent involves the Goddess visiting and re-uniting with Her dark self or sister Ereshkigal. It is very much a lunar myth of the dark moon. On the way Inanna encounters seven gates – the number of days of the waning moon – where She has to give up the seven regalia of Her office. When She finally meets Her sister, She dies and has to hang on a hook for three days – the number of days of the dark moon. During that time Ereshkigal, the Dark Moon Goddess or Inanna’s dark moon aspect, gives birth to new life. Eventually the Queen of the Underworld agrees to let Inanna return to the world above, but only on the condition that She can find a replacement for Herself. Inanna returns to Heaven and Earth where She finally chooses Her Son-Lover Dumuzi to take Her place, as unlike everyone else he did not grieve for Her and instead enjoyed his time on Inanna’s throne.

Much of Sumerian mythology was adopted by the Babylonians where She was known as Ishtar and Her son-lover as Tammuz. Eventually the story of the Goddess and Her son would make its way into Christianity where to this day millions of people celebrate the birth of Jesus at Christmas and his death and resurrection at Easter. Mary to this day is celebrated by many as the Mother of God.

Unto Her who renders decisions, Goddess of all things,
Unto the Lady of Heaven and Earth who receives supplication;
Unto Her who hears petition, who entertains prayer;
Unto the compassionate Goddess who loves righteousness;
Ishtar the Queen, who suppresses all that is confused.

To the Queen of Heaven, the Goddess of the Universe,
the One who walked in terrible Chaos and brought life by the Law of Love;
And out of Chaos brought us harmony, and from Chaos Thou has led us by the hand.

– Babylon, Eighteenth to Seventh Century BCE


[1] From Elinor W. Gadon’s “The Once and Future Goddess” pg.119

[2] From Anne Baring and Jules Cashford’s “The Myth of the Goddess – Evolution of an Image”

[3] Eventually as life in the Middle East changed and became less peaceful, Inanna was turned into a Goddess of War. This, however, was not one of Her initial attributes!

[4] Later myth passes the “me” on to the god Enki, by then described as Her father, who gives them to Inanna only to regret his decision later.